Washington State University
SHOP / AGRICULTURAL WORKPLACE SAFETY
SAFETY POLICIES AND PROCEDURES MANUAL
Environmental Health and Safety
Departments are to use safeguards to protect employees and students
from hazards associated with operating machines. Machine safeguards are
generally physical barriers that either enclose or isolate hazards.
When safeguards cannot be used during maintenance, service, and repairs,
personnel are to disconnect and control (e.g., lockout) all machine power
sources to prevent inadvertent activation. See 3.68.
Departmental administrators are responsible for ensuring that
machines used for work, teaching, and research are equipped and maintained
with appropriate safeguards.
Supervisors and faculty are responsible for training employees
and students in the proper use of machinery and safeguards in accordance
with the manufacturer's instructions. This should be a part of the safety
orientation. See 2.16.
Employees and students must properly use machines and safeguards
at all times. Safeguards may only be removed during maintenance, service,
and repairs when power sources are disconnected and controlled (e.g., locked
out). See 3.68.
Employees and students are not to wear loose clothing, neckties, rings,
or other jewelry which could be caught or entangled in moving parts. Employees
and students whose hair is long enough to be caught or entangled in moving
parts are to wear caps, hair nets, or other protection which confines hair.
Machines are to be inspected before each use in accordance with
the manufacturer's instructions. This process includes inspecting the operating
controls, safety devices and guards, electrical cords, power transmission
devices, and points-of-operation for obvious defects.
Additionally, as part of the department's annual self-inspection, supervisors
are to check all machine operations in order to identify hazardous areas
or processes. See 2.50
for self-inspection procedures.
Obtain or design safeguards to completely enclose or prohibit
access to hazards. The safeguards are to be securely affixed to the machine
or other attachment points. The safeguards are not to create a hazard, e.g.,
Operations to Be Safeguarded
Safeguard the following two types of operations by using physical
barriers that either enclose or isolate the hazard(s):
- Points-of-operation: Locations where the material being processed
comes into direct contact with the machinery. This is where shaping, boring,
forming, drilling, or cutting occurs.
- Power transmission points: Mechanical components which transmit energy
and motion from the power source to the points-of-operation. Power transmission
points include gears, drive shafts, cams, rods, belts/pulleys, and chain/sprockets.
Examples of points-of-operation and power transmission points
See the PDF version of 3.62.2-3
- Rotating components, e.g., drive-shafts, flywheels, pulleys,
- Cutting and shearing action, e.g., saws, shears, augers, grinders.
- In-running nip points, e.g., belts/pulleys, chain/sprockets,
- Forming and bending action, e.g., press brakes, mechanical
Machines are to be equipped with the following types of controls:
MACHINE GUARDING HAZARDS--REPORTING AND CORRECTION
- The operator must be able to turn off the power to the machine without
leaving the point-of-operation.
- Operating controls must be within easy reach of the operator. The
operator should not have to reach over a hazard to make adjustments.
- After a power failure the machine must not automatically restart upon
restoration of power. The operator must have to activate a reset switch
to start the machine.
- Operating treadles are to be guarded against accidental tripping,
e.g., a cover.
- Powered feed rolls or other moving parts on feeder attachments are
to be guarded.
- Machines should be equipped with energy isolating devices (e.g., circuit
breaker, disconnecting switch) designed to accept a lockout device during
maintenance, service, or repair activities. See 3.68.
Report hazards directly to the supervisor or use a Hazard Notification
form. See 2.52.
Do not use a machine designated as unsafe. Usually such machinery is tagged,
posted, locked, fenced, or otherwise designated as unfit for use.
Resume operation only after the hazard has been corrected and the machine
has been declared safe to use by a supervisor, faculty member, or qualified
Upon observation or notification of a machine not equipped with
proper safeguards, a supervisor or faculty member is to remove the machine
Notify employees and/or students that the machine is not to be operated.
Place a warning notification, e.g., tag or sign, on the machine designating
it as unsafe and not to be opeated. Prevent use by disconnecting and locking
out the power source(s) or other effective means, such as installing barriers
or physically removing the machine.
Contact Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) regarding
machine safety; telephone 335-3041.
Drawings in the PDF version of this section are reprinted by
permission of the National Safety Council. See the PDF version of 3.62