Washington State University

Revised 9-14
Radiation Safety Office

Radiation Machine Authorization

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Departments and personnel must acquire, install, operate, use, and dispose of all equipment located at or owned by the University that is capable of producing ionizing radiation in accordance with the requirements of the:

The Radiation Safety Committee must approve all equipment capable of producing ionizing radiation that is put into active use at a University facility.


The purpose of the policy and procedures in this section (9.60) is to:


Radiation Safety Office

Maintenance of State Registrations

The Radiation Safety Office (RSO) maintains a state facility (business location) and state machine registration for all machines listed on active and current authorizations, if the machines remain in active use.

Safety and Compliance Inspections

The RSO must perform the following:

Authorized Users

The authorized user must notify the RSO of any of the following:


The following procedures are designed to ensure the proper maintenance of this policy:

Preapproval to Acquire and/or Install a Radiation Machine

The authorized user or department must prenotify the RSO of any intent to take possession, attempt to fabricate, or install a radiation-generating machine at a University-affiliated facility. The method of procurement does not alter the requirement for RSO preapproval.

The Purchasing Office coordinates with the RSO to ensure that all radiation-generating equipment and machines are preapproved by the RSO and/or the Radiation Safety Committee. NOTE: Departments may not use Departmental Orders or purchasing cards to procure radiation machines. (See BPPM 70.07, 70.08, and 70.10).

Radiation Safety Committee Authorization

Radiation Safety Committee authorization approval (see 9.40) must precede any of the following:

Machine Registration

State Registration

The RSO must register all machines (e.g., analytical, clinical and experimental) capable of producing ionizing radiation through the Washington State Business Licensing Service.

The RSO must register any facilities housing equipment with x-ray tubes or other ionizing radiation generating machines through the Business Licensing Service. Such machines include clinical veterinary diagnostic and therapeutic equipment and machines used for educational, security, analytical research, and industrial purposes.

University Registration

The authorized user must submit a Machine Registration form to the RSO for each machine to be included under an authorization. The registration form is available at RSO Forms on the RSO website.

The authorized user must include the following with the machine registration:

Machine Records and Inventory

The RSO records and tracks the following information about each radiation machine:

The Controller's Office inventories all University equipment with an acquisition cost of more than $5000. See BPPM 20.50.

Supervision by Authorized User

An approved authorized user must supervise and control all equipment capable of producing ionizing radiation that is used in activities sponsored by the University. Permanent faculty and staff may apply to be authorized users by submitting authorization applications to the Radiation Safety Committee for review and approval. (See 9.40.)

The authorization application form is available at RSO Forms.

Facility and Machine Security and Control

Open-Beam Radiation Machines

When not in use or during unattended operation, a room devoted solely to an open-beam radiation machine must be locked or have access restricted to authorized personnel only. (See 9.95 for definition of open-beam configuration.)

Each machine is to have a key-operated power switch.

Non-Open-Beam Radiation Machines

The beam enclosure for non-open-beam systems (e.g., cabinet and enclosed systems) must be a closed in a chamber that cannot be entered by any part of the body during routine operation.

The enclosure is to be interlocked with the tube high voltage supply or shutter, so that the beam cannot be available unless the enclosure is in place and unoccupied.

Facility and Machine Hazard Postings

The department or authorized user must ensure that the following postings are in place and maintained in readable condition:

Safety Devices


Certain safety devices are required for each radiation machine. Such safety devices are:


Examples of such safety devices include:

A beam-on indicator is a conspicuous failsafe light or device near the X-ray tube assembly or the power switch, which indicates when the tube is energized.

Safety Device Failure

If a safety device appears to be nonoperational, fails on a preoperational test, or becomes inoperable during the use of a machine, the authorized user or department must:

RSO Preapproval

Preapproval from the RSO is required in order to make machine modifications that alter or modify manufacturer-installed or regulatory-required safety devices, such as:

General Operation Guidelines and Requirements

Written Operational and Safety Procedures

The authorized user:

The authorized user must post such written procedures near the operating controls of each machine. The procedures must include:

Approved Machine Operators

The following requirements apply to approved machine operators:

Machine Operation and Use Records

Machine operators must maintain a documentation of the use of each radiation machine. The records that must be available for inspection include:

Emergency Procedures

The authorized user must post written procedures for operator responses to emergency situations. The operator must note any potential unplanned or unexpected (misfire) exposure in the service log and post the machine as out-of-service until it can be serviced by a qualified service technician.

If unusual circumstances occur, such as malfunctioning controls, indicator lights, interlocks, or an above-normal radiation exposure (operational malfunction), the operator must immediately:

Transfer, Removal and/or Disposition of Radiation Machines

Transfer of Equipment to an Alternate User

The authorized user may transfer a radiation machine to another authorized user if:

Inactive or Defective Radiation Machines

The RSO "locks out" a machine to prevent its operation if:

The RSO does not renew the state registration for a machine if the machine has been in a locked-out status for more than three months.

Termination of Radiation Machine Authorization and Removal of Equipment

The following requirements apply to the termination of radiation machine authorizations and removal of the equipment: